|Ershawan Fortification was first built in 1840 during the First Anglo-Chinese War. During the Sino-French War, most gun emplacements were destroyed by the French troops. This emplacement was rebuilt by Liou, Ming-Chuan, the governor of Taiwan, after the truce in 1885, and is one of the few gun emplacements which have survived from the two major wars during the Cing Dynasty. Sitting on a high position, Ershawan Gun Emplacement has a clear view of the entire Keelung Harbour. The emplacement is a Modern Chinese Fortress and it is surrounded by defensive trenches and small fortresses. The emplacement was equipped with a 8-inch Armstrong Cannon at the east side and a 6-inch Armstrong Cannon at the north side, with the ammo storages next to them. The tombstones of the soldiers killed on the field were carved with the Chinese characters indicating they were Liu’s troops. The barracks was built at the back of the mountain with the gate and walls protecting the whole barracks. The Chinese characters above the gate state: “A gateway to sea with natural defence.”
|Sitting on the right plateau of Keelung Harbour, the Gangizihliao Emplacement has a clear ocean view of Keelungyu and Badozi. It used to guard the northeast coast and was commanded by the Keelung Fortification Command. The facilities were left by the Japanese troops following the Russo-Japanese War; most of them were modified between 1900 and 1908 based on the original structure built during the Cing Dynasty. The facilities include: the gun emplacements, observation post, warehouses, barracks, ammo storage, office for officers, water reservoir, guard post, and toilets etc. The Emplacement was equipped with 28 mm howitzers and 9 mm cannons. One major feature of the Emplacement is the pottery speaker equipment installed between the cannons. The Emplacement has not been much modified after Taiwan’s Restoration and is well-preserved as the best example of the Japanese Occupation Era in Keelung.
|The Gun Emplacement on Dawulun Mountain has always served as an important fortress guarding the west coast of Keelung because of its critical location. Its first establishment was related to the eruption of the Sino-French War during the Cing Dynasty. The present facilities were left by the Japanese troops following the Russo-Japanese War. The main facility was finished between 1900 and 1902, and was the best preserved cannon of the Japanese Occupation Era in Keelung. The emplacement includes two main cannons, ammo storage, observation post, and carriage path. There are also a command post, an office for officers, barracks, water reservoir, and toilets. The emplacement was equipped with 9mm cannons and Type 31 75mm Mountain Guns to monitor the sea area and the land path of Wanli and Jinshan. The fortress used to guard the west coast of Keelung. Many trenches were dug around the fortress to protect the military equipment inside it.
|Sitting on the left wing of Keelung Harbour, Baimiwong Fortification views the entire harbour. Its history can be traced to Dutch Formosa. The Emplacement was then built up by the Cing Dynasty between Anglo-Chinese War and Sino-FrenchWar. The present facility was built by the Japanese troops for the Russo-Japanese War, based on the foundation left by Liou, Ming-Chuan. The fortress was under the command of the Keelung Fortification Command. The facility includes: cannons, ammo storage, command post, observation post, pill boxes, barracks, toilets and guard posts etc. At first, the Emplacement was equipped with four 8-inch cannons. The war-time ammo storage area was built at the front wall. The arch-style ammo storage is below the gun emplacement for transporting the ammo to the cannons. The observation post was built to the right of the guns, to better observe enemy ships and the target zone.
|Mushan Fortification was also called Mushan Fortress. It was built by the Japanese troops for the Russo-Japanese War. Together with Baimiwong Fortress and Dawulun Fortress, all of them guarded the west coast of Keelung Harbour. The Mushan Emplacement was designed by the headquarters of the City Construction Bureau, and built by the Keelung Branch. The major facility was built between 1899 and 1902. At first, the Emplacement was equipped with 28 mm howitzers, which were all removed later because they did not meet the requirements. From Taiwan’s Restoration till today, Mushan Gun Emplacement remains stationed by the army. In addition to the gun chassis, the Emplacement also includes ammo, weapons storage, barracks, and command post. Although the remaining buildings are not complete, the basic structure of the barracks is still preserved. Some shelters are left from the period of Japanese rule.
|Liou Mingchuan Tunnel
|Liou Mingchuan Tunnel is also called Shiciouling Tunnel. It is the only tunnel-shaped railway between Keelung and Hsinchu built during the Cing Dynasty, and the major contribution of the westernization introduced by Liou, Ming-Chuan, the governor of Taiwan during the Cing Dynasty. The tunnel was built from 1888 to 1890 and managed by Taiwan Railway Bureau which was established in 1887. The entire construction was supervised by English and German engineers, and built by the soldiers. During the Japanese rule, the Japanese engineers rerouted the rail tracks from Keelung to Shuifanjiao (the present Jhuziliao Tunnel line) to avoid the rigid slopes. The Tunnel was thus abandoned and preserved to the present day. The length of the Tunnel is about 235 meters. Due to the complicated geology, the construction was extremely difficult. The northern part is mainly hard rocks while the southern part consists of soft mud layers, which are reinforced by bricks. The side-walls of the middle part are reinforced by sandstone. The four Chinese characters above the entrance state: “A way open to the sky”, which shows the difficulty of the construction. A couplet written by Liu on both sides of the entrance says: “After fifteen years, a path is finally open. On the ninety meter high mountain a rocky way is built showing human power over nature.”
Shiqiuling Fortification was founded in 1884, which was a Western fortification designed and built by British technicians employed by Taiwan Provincial Governor Liu Ming-chuan at the beginning of his office, including the east and west two fortifications.
It is Keelung City’s only existing old-time fortification located in the center of the city, also the last line of defense entrenched in Keelung’s access to the Taipei Basin. Keelung Harbor’s most inland defense fortification is located on a small hill south of Keelung Harbor. The freeway piercing out of Daye Tunnel lies at the foot in front. It is not only the best location overlooking Keelung City, but also traffic channel in and out of Taipei. In the Qing Dynasty, under the ridge there was railway connecting Keelung, Taipei two places, so it has always been a place contested by all strategists.
During the Sino-French War, a position was set on Shiqiuling, southern line stronghold of defense by Qing forces. In order to capture Shiqiuling, the French army and the Qing army fall in seesaw battle. The two sides were locked in a stalemate for eight months, so that the French army was unable to advance to Taipei. During “Yi-Wei Battle of cession of Taiwan” in 1895, on June 3 the Japanese army captured Keelung, was ready to drive straight into Taipei, and started the battle fighting for Shiqiuling with the Qing army. Later due to internal strife, the Qing army ceded to the enemy. Thus it showed the importance of its strategic location.
What you see today is mainly the middle fortification. West fortification is submerged in an infestation of weeds. Now only a stone command post and a fortification base remain. Fortification configuration is lined up, barracks located in the rear. On the west side of command post there is a gun seat and the wall, with the arched ammunition hole under wall corner. The ruins of the cannon dish is a fan- shaped plane. The lower locus is the cannon position. At the slightly higher locus is original curved track. The radiation type of groove is a gutter, showing the excellence of design. A stone command post wall was built with rock and concrete. The roof is extremely hard cement and steel construction. Interior has rooms and corridors with a wall thickness of about one meter, can be said to be the “Impregnable fortress”. It is the only remaining small fortification from the Qing Dynasty, very valuable.
An old building of Sheliao Fortification in Sheliao island has gone through development of the Spanish period, the Dutch period, the period of Kingdom of Tungning, the period under Qing Dynasty rule, the Japanese colonial period and the stage after retrocession. It is the only remaining military structure of all cases in Taiwan area. These old structures generally encompass monument elements of three important periods: (1) In the early seventeenth century, to maintain its safe and smooth sea shipping, in the first term of office of Spanish senior official Antonio Carreño de Valdes, leading engineer Bolton built it. In 1626, they established San Salvador City in seaport (Fort Noord-Holland during the Dutch period), and the various mountaintop, seaside defense fortresses and fortifications. (2) After the Sino-French War, Taiwan Provincial Governor Liu Ming-chuan, in order to actively promote the Westernization Movement of Taiwan, in 1886 on Sheliao Island built Sheliao Fortification, which was designed by German technician Baons. Battalion soldiers stationed in Keelung were responsible for building fortification, which was completed in 1891. (3) After Japan governed Taiwan, in response to the Russo-Japanese War preparations, the Ministry of City Construction head office was responsible for designing fortification. The Ministry of City Construction Keelung branch was responsible for performing construction work, which was completed in 1903. Preparatory artillery fortifications were completed in 1904. Due to excellent strategic geographical advantage, governments of various periods regarded Sheliao Fortification as the extremely important military place. Currently, the fortress ruins initially built in the Spanish and Dutch period still exist. Others such as Sheliao Fortification walls, the remaining structure of building foundation in barrack area in Liu Ming-chuan period of the Qing Dynasty, as well as the commander’s command post, tunnels and other facilities in Meiji Period are particularly visible. It was the existing Sheliao Fortification in east, west area.
Eastern area (original Sheliao island electric light station) and Mushan electric light station are two completed coast electric light stations during Keelung fortress preparatory period after Russo-Japanese War. Now the electric light agency building, magazine, electric light station, observation room, searchlight station, searchlight platform and other structures remain.
Western area (formerly Sheliao Island Fortification commander’s command post) is a form of bunker, located directly behind the gun sitting area. It is 1.5 meters thick, 1-meter-high brick masonry foot wall, supporting 1.5 meters thick concrete arch structure above. The upper part of the shelter arch is in the form of ramp.
|Sino-French War Memorial Park
Sino-French War Memorial Park was founded in 1885, built to commemorate French soldiers sacrificed in the Sino-French War. This cemetery lasts is the only architecture in Keelung directly connected to this war. In terms of the tomb style, it is also one of the best cemetery in Taiwan dominated to bury Westerners since the late Qing Dynasty. There are six monuments and four graves within Park.
It was constructed in three periods. (1) In period under Qing Dynasty rule, in 1885 tombstones were built by the French army in Dashawan. (2) In the Japanese colonial period, in 1909 the Japanese government accepted the French’s commission to build, and in 1929 it was built when the French government sent personnel to participate shifting ceremony. (3) After retrocession, in 1954 the French government relocated graves from Penghu and set up migration memorial monument. Except for one inscription monument facing the southeast, the configuration of other monuments and tombstones built by the Japanese government face the west; and the configuration of the relocated monuments and tombstones by the French Government face south. Graves and monuments in the park use stone carving and bonding, whose simple, vigorous, natural and gentle texture is proportionate to seriousness of the cemetery. Aside from the choice of sandstone to build monument in 1885, the remainders are changed to granite and andesite rocks less susceptible to weathering. Existing trails within the park has the concrete surface, which present radial layout descending from the semicircular stairs of the entrance. Current trails are alterations after the retrocession.
|Keelung Fort Command
Keelung Fort Command was established in 1903 as a result of the Russo-Japanese War. It was the military command centre of north Taiwan. The present command building was constructed in 1928 and was finished the following year. It was taken over by the Taiwanese Army after Taiwan’s Restoration and is presently used by the Coast Patrol office. The whole building is a T-shape design from above and its style reflects the weather condition of Keelung: hot and rainy. It is an example of the military buildings in Taiwan. The decoration of the building is simple: geometrical and star pattern.
In front of the building, there is a memorial with Chiang Kai-shek’s writing that was inscribed in 1946.
|Keelung Fort Commander's Official Residence (Li's House)
|The building was originally the residence for the employees of Keelung Nagami Bus company, which was located to the north of the building. It was built in 1931 by the company owner, Isuke Nagami. In 1936, the company was transformed into the Keelung Public Automobile Company. After Taiwan’s Restoration, due to the original commander’s residence having been bombed, the Fortification Command used this building as the temporary Commander’s Residence. The building was later rented by the Li family and thus got its name, Li’s House. The Residence was built along the mountainside and the design was a combination of Japanese and Western styles. The main building is on the north side, while the receiving room and the Japanese garden are on the south side. It is one of the well-known buildings in Keelung.
|Keelung Fort Commander's Residences
|Keelung Fort Commander’s Residences were built in the 1930s. The Residences were only offered to commanding officers. During the Ching Dynasty, the site had been known as the Dashawan Coastal Fortification, and some of its remains can still be found today. After Keelung Fortification Command was established, the Residences were built on the west coast area because of its scenery. At the back of the Residences is the Keelung Recreation Club, which used to be the meeting place for the commanding officers. The officers’ building across the street was used by the lower rank officers. The Residences of Commanding Officers are a combination of Western and Japanese styles. Each residence contains a receiving room, living room, tea room, children’s room, and maid’s room. The extended roof and the ditches were built for Keelung’s rainy and humid weather.
|Pengjia islet lighthouse
|It was constructed since the end of 1906, completed in September 1909. Since the building of the lighthouse, so far a history over 100 years has passed. It carries lighthouse characteristics of the Japanese colonial period, is an important historical site in route between Japan and Taiwan, and still more important witness to the history of shipping. It was bombed by allies in World War II, traces of bullets are still left on the top and the lens. The lighthouse was built by Taipei Sawai shi kura Construction Co., Ltd., supervised by technician Ishimura kataro from Bureau of Civil Engineering. Light is produced and purchased by Route Identification Management Institute. It was the last lighthouse in Taiwan area to phase out kerosene. It is a white round brick lighthouse with the octagonal base, 26.2 meters high. The tower has 12 laps of iron railings, conducive to paint and maintenance, the only case among the nationwide lighthouses. The lamp chamber uses Barbier & Benard crystal refractive lens, Taiwan area's largest lens. This construction method has never been passed on, and the preservation of traditional mercury mirror machine rotating platform and conduction used hammer, cables and other devices are quite unique. Traditional cast iron staircases and sundial seat are still preserved; besides, the whole region's facilities are intact (dormitories, offices, old light pole seats, water storage station, reservoirs, catchment area). And the ecological environment (such as Seremban, Longflower Lily, Grey Wagtail, and Blue Rock Thrush) and fishing resources of the locus are rich, geographical landscape prominent (sea notch, sea cave).